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India Travel Guide Help » Indian Culture

About Indian Culture

Few countries in the world have such an ancient and diverse culture as India's. Stretching back in an unbroken sweep over 5000 years, India's culture has been enriched by successive waves of migration which were absorbed into the Indian way of life.It is this variety which is a special hallmark of India. Its physical, religious and racial variety is as immense as its linguistic diversity. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day. Modern India presents a picture of unity in diversity to which history provides no parallel. Here is a catalogue of everything Indian. Indian religions, festivals, rituals, artifacts, monuments, costumes, music and dance, language and literature. Come and discover a little more of India's culture by selecting any of the topics listed below.

Religion seeps into every facet of Indian life. Despite being a secular democracy, India is one of the few countries on earth in which the social and religious structures which define the nation's identity remain intact, and have continued to do so for at least 4000 years despite invasions, persecution, European colonialism and political upheaval. Change is inevitably taking place as modern technology reaches further and further into the fabric of society but essentially rural India remains much the same as it has for thousands of years. So resilient are its social and religious institutions that it has absorbed, ignored or thrown off all attempts to radically change or destroy them.

India's major religion, Hinduism, is practised by approximately 80% of the population. In terms of the number of adherents, it's the largest religion in Asia and one of the world's oldest extant faiths. Hinduism has a vast pantheon of gods, a number of holy books and postulates that everyone goes through a series of births or reincarnations that eventually lead to spiritual salvation. With each birth, you can move closer to or further from eventual enlightenment; the deciding factor is your karma. The Hindu religion has three basic practices. They are puja or worship, the cremation of the dead, and the rules and regulations of the caste system. Hinduism is not a proselytising religion since you cannot be converted: you're either born a Hindu or you're not.

Buddhism was founded in northern India in about 500 BC, spread rapidly when emperor Ashoka embraced it but was gradually reabsorbed into Hinduism. Today Hindus regard the Buddha as another incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. There are now only 6.6 million Buddhists in India, but important Buddhist sites in northern India, such as Bodhgaya, Sarnath (near Varanasi) and Kushinagar (near Gorakhpur) remain important sites of pilgrimage.The Jain religion also began life as an attempt to reform Brahminical Hinduism. It emerged at the same time as Buddhism, and for many of the same reasons. The Jains now number only about 4.5 million and are found predominantly in the west and south-west of India. The religion has never found adherents outside India. Jains believe that the universe is infinite and was not created by a deity. They also believe in reincarnation and eventual spiritual salvation by following the path of the Jain prophets.

There are more than 100 million Muslims in India, making it one of the largest Muslim nations on earth. Islam is the dominant religion in the neighbouring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh, and there is a Muslim majority in Jammu & Kashmir. Muslim influence in India is particularly strong in the fields of architecture, art and food. The Sikhs in India number 18 million and are predominantly located in the Punjab. The religion was originally intended to bring together the best of Hinduism and Islam. Its basic tenets are similar to those of Hinduism with the important modification that the Sikhs are opposed to caste distinctions. The holiest shrine of the Sikh religion is the Golden Temple in Amritsar.

India is as close as the world comes to Babel. There's no 'Indian' language per se, which is partly why English is still widely spoken almost half a century after the British left India. Eighteen languages are officially recognised by the constitution, but over 1600 minor languages and dialects were listed in the 1991 census. Language is a heavily politicised issue, not least because many state boundaries have been drawn on linguistic lines. Major efforts have been made to promote Hindi as the national language and to gradually phase out English. A stumbling block to this plan is that while Hindi is the predominant language in the north, it bears little relation to the Dravidian languages of the south. In the south, very few people speak Hindi. The Indian upper class cling to English as the shared language of the educated elite, championing it as both a badge of their status and as a passport to the world of international business. In truth, only about 3% of Indians have a firm grasp of the language.

Indian art is basically religious in its themes and developments, and its appreciation requires at least some bacground knowledge of the country's faiths. The highlights include classical Indian dance, Hindu temple architecture and sculpture (where one begins and the other ends is often hard to define), the military and urban architecture of the Mughals, miniature painting, and mesmeric Indian music. The latter is difficult for visitors to appreciate since there is no sense of harmony in the Western sense, but don't be put off by this.

Indians love the cinema and the Indian film industry, centred on Bombay, is one of the largest and most glamorous in the world. The vast proportion of films produced are gaudy melodramas based on three vital ingredients: romance, violence and music. You'll know what to expect from the fantastically hand-painted cinema billboards that dominate many streets. Imagine Rambo crossed with The Sound of Music and a Cecil B De Mille biblical epic, and you're halfway there. It's cheap operatic escapism, extremely harsh on the ears, and should not be missed.

Contrary to popular belief, not all Hindus are officially vegetarians. Although you'll find vegetarians everywhere, strict vegetarianism is most prevaslent in the south (which has not been influenced by meat-eating Aryans and Muslims) and in the Gujarati community. There are considerable regional variations from north to south, partly because of climatic conditions and partly because of historical influences. In the north, much more meat is eaten and the cuisine is often 'Mughal style', which bears a closer relationship to food of the Middle East and Central Asia. The emphasis is more on spices and less on chilli; grains and breads are more popular than rice. In the south, more rice is eaten, there is more vegetarian food, and the curries tend to be hotter. Another feature of southern vegetarian food is that you do not use eating utensils; just scoop the food up with your fingers - though not with those of your left hand.

Culture is the Art of Living. The culture of India is one of the oldest cultures in the world. In modern India, there is remarkable cultural diversity throughout the country. India is a conglomeration of men and women of various castes and creed. It is a fusion of old traditional values and the modern principles, thus satisfying all the three generations in the present India. Indian culture tells us to multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness and pain. It tells us that by all this we can develop co-operation and better living amongst ourselves and subsequently make this world a better place to live in.

Dance & Music of India

India offers a number of classical dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts of the country. Each form represents the culture and ethos of a particular region or a group of people. The seven main styles are Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Odissi, Kuchipudi, Mohiniattam, Manipuri and Kathakali.

Indian music is lyrical and exciting in composition. The music of India includes multiples varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and Hindustani music. The arts and crafts, music and dance, architecture and people all are instances of the culture and its rainbow of India.

Folk Dance

The Indian folk dance is simple without being naive, for behind its simplicity lie both profundity of conception and a directness of expression which are of great artistic value. The concept of portraying emotion is generally speaking foreign to folk dance and what is expressed is natural and original. What is important here is not the grace of the individual dancer or the virtuosity of the isolated prose, but the total effect of the overwhelming buoyancy of spirit, and the eloquent, effortless ease with which it is expressed. It has intimate relationship with functions of daily life; food-gathering, harvesting, rites, rituals and beliefs. The popular folk dances of India are Ruk Mar Nacha, Purulia Chhau, Rangoli Bihu, Singhi Chham, Karma, Cheraw Dance, Hojagiri, Bardo Chham, Chang Lo, Lahoo and Thang Ta in the East. Bhangra, Charkula, Ghoomar, Spaw Dance and Kinnauri Nati in the North. Kalbelia Dance, Koli, Tarangmel, Dandiya Raas, Garba, Tippani Dance, Panthi, The Padhar Dance, Dharmar and Hamchi Dances in the West. Devarattam, Dollu Kunita, Thapetta Gullu, Garadi, Lava Dance and Nicobarese Dance in the South.

Bharatanatyam

Bharata Natyam, originating in Tamil Nadu, has movements of pure rhythm, rendering a story dramatically in different moods. For a long time, Bharat Natyam was performed only in temples by dancers in service of the temple, the devadasis. The dancers must learn the language of gestures, mudras - so as to express feelings, movements and characters in the stories which she narrates through dance.

Kathak

The Kathak dance form originated in the north. The influence of the Mughal tradition is evident in this dance form, and it has a distinct Hindu-Muslim texture. The word Kathak, derived from 'Katha', literally means storyteller. Today, the maestros of this dance form include Birju Maharaj and Uma Sharma. Kathak has an exciting and entertaining quality with intricate footwork and rapid pirouettes being the dominant and most endearing features of this style. The costumes and themes of these dances are often similar to those in Mughal miniature paintings.

Kathakali

Kathakali, a well-developed dance-drama of Kerala is a performance where the actors depict characters from the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata and from the Puranas (ancient scriptures). The dancers adorn themselves in huge skirts and headdress, wearing a most intricate style of make-up. Kathakali draws heavily from drama and is danced with elaborate masks and costumes. Like Bharatanatyam Kathakali also needed a resurrection in the 1930s. The great poet Vallathol rediscovered Kathakali, establishing the Kerala Kalamandalam in 1932 which lent a new dimension to the art-form in South India.

Manipuri

Protected for years in a valley of exceeding beauty, Manipuri is the art expression of every man, woman and child of Manipur. The musical forms of that culture reflect the worship of Vishnu. It is around episodes from his life that the faith of the people is entwined. The sanskirtan and the rass are revered musical traditions enacted appropriately at different times of the year by the community as a whole. Manipuri is not aggressive. It is tender and almost reticent on the one hand, and extremely vigorous on the other. A continuity of movement and a restraint of power are underlying features of the style.

Chhau

The Chhau dance is indigenous to the eastern part of India. It originated as a martial art and contains vigorous movements and leaps. Some Chhau dances use large stylized masks. The depiction of birds and animals is a distinctive feature. There are also heroic dances with sword, bow or shield, with which dancers demonstrate their dexterity. In recent times, Mayurbhanj Chhau has become popular as a medium of choreography, with its wide range of postures and movements that adapt well to modern as well as traditional treatment.

Indian Music

Qawwali

The classic Pakistani Qawwali music in its present form goes back to the 12th century, and the poet as well as composer Amir. But the qawwali music is perhaps even older. Qawwali, a sufi and religious music is closely connected to Islam. It is classic, but not in western meaning of the word. It is strictly built up in different stages. All with verse and chorus. The first stages activate the links with the living spiritual guides, the next with the departed saints and at last with God (Allah). It is believed that khayal form of music also originated from the qawwali style of singing.

Folk Music

The true rhythm of India lies in its folk music - the music of the masses. The extreme cultural diversity creates endless varieties of folk styles. Every event of life has a unique folk song associated with it - then be it festivals, advent of the new season, birth of a child, or day-to-day affairs like teasing one's loved one, admiring nature, etc. Music is an indispensable component of functions such as weddings, engagements, and births. There is a surfeit of songs for such occasions. The Indian folk music has today reached out to touch the hearts of masses across the globe with its melodious rhythm and endless energy.

Ghazal

Ghazal has its roots in classical Arabic poetry. Ghazal is an Arabic word which literally means talking to women. It grew from the Persian qasida, which verse form had come to Iran from Arabia around the 10th century A.D. The qasida was a eulogy written in praise of the emperor or his noblemen. The part of the qasida called tashbib got detached and developed in due course of time into the Ghazal. India has produced some of the exceptional talents in the field of ghazal singing like Begum Akhtar, Jagjit Singh, Pankaj Udhas etc.

Classical Music

The two fundamental elements of Hindustani classical music are raag and taal. Hindustani music is the music of North India, involving both Hindu and Muslim musicians. It is intimately associated with the north-Indian temple rituals and traces back its existence in the Shastras or ancient treaties in Sanskrit. The different forms of Hindustani music are - Dhrupad, Dhamar, Khayal, Tappa and Thumri.

Indian Architecture

One of the most enduring achievements of Indian civilization is undoubtedly its architecture. As with India's sculpture and painting, architecture has developed many different styles over time due to religious, cultural and regional influences. The temples built during the Hindu and Jain period were distinguished by their roofs and spires as well as their ornate carvings.

Wooden Art

Kashmir is the only state in India, where walnut trees grow. The craftsmen here create intricate carvings on wood obtained from the walnut tree. Furniture items like tables, chairs, stools, partitions etc have rich floral and trellis patterns carved on them. Carving done on walnut is either deep or shallow. Items like tables, fruit trays and bowls etc are also decorated with inlay work. Wax polishing is done on finished products, so that the beauty of the wood grain is not lost. Rajasthan is known for articles and decorative objects made from locally obtained wood.

Each region of Rajasthan has its own unique wood tradition. Barmer is well known for carved furniture. Some furniture pieces like tables, low stools etc have miniature paintings on them. Carved wood items such as cabinets, screens, chairs, tables, almirahs, racks etc are highly ornate. Rajasthan is also known for wood figurines in the shape of animals, which are beautified with inlay work. Exquisite jali or latticework is also produced here. Craftsmen of Rajasthan also make delicately carved figures of deities on rosewood and sandalwood. Craftsmen from Madhya Pradesh use a variety of wood like shisham, teak, dhudi, sal and kikar for making household items. Woodcraft from the tribal belt of Bastar is known for figures of tribal deities, carved wooden memorials, masks etc. Madhya Pradesh is also famous for painted and lacquered wood product such as toys, boxes, bedposts, cradles posts, flower vases etc. Gwalior, Sheopur-Kalan, Rewa and Budhni are main centers of wood lacquering. Uttar Pradesh has many craft centers engaged in making different items out of wood. Saharanpur is known for vine-leaf patterns on Sheesham wood. Floral, geometric and figurative carving is also done here with wood inlay work. Inlay work is done with bone and plastic as ivory is banned in India. Mainpuri is famous for woodwork on ebony or black sheesham inlaid with brass wire. Banaras is known for lacquered toys and miniature utensils for children to play with.

Gems & Jewellery

In early India, people fashioned jewellery out of natural materials found in abundance all over the country-seeds, feathers, leaves, berries, fruits, flowers, animal bones, claws and teeth. Even today such jewellery is used by the different tribal societies. Excavations at Mohenjodaro and other sites of the Indus Valley civilization have unearthed a wealth of ornaments. It appears that both men and women of that time wore jewellery made of gold, silver, copper, ivory and precious and semi-precious stones. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are abound with descriptions of ornaments and the code of Manu defines the duties of the goldsmith. By the third century B.C., India was Gems & Jewelry the leading exporter of gemstones, particularly diamonds. Gold was usually imported into the country, a practice prevalent even during the Mughal period. In India the ornaments are made practically for every part of the body. Such a variety of ornaments bears the testimony to the excellent skills of the jewelers in India. The range of jewellery in India varied from religious one to purely aesthetic one. Jewellery was crafted not just for humans but also for the gods, ceremonial elephants and horses. The craft of jewellery was given a royal patronage right from the ancient times. The rajas and maharajas vied with each other to possess the most exquisite and the most magnificent pieces of jewellery. Temple complexes supported many different styles of jewellery-scented sandalwood bead necklaces, the prayer bead or the rudraksh (berry of the elaocarpus canitrus) necklace, multicoloured silk and gold thread necklaces. In the Hindu, Jain and Sikh community where women do not inherit landed property, jewellery was a major component of the stree dhana (gifts given to a woman at the time of her marriage). Jewellery, because of its easy convertibility into cash, was thus regarded as security and investment.

Paintings

Indians knew the art of painting since prehistoric times. The earliest paintings in India can be found on the walls of Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh. The walls of these caves have been decorated with animal and human figures. The Indian art of painting is varied and diverse, like the cultures, to which they belong. Paintings are made using a variety of medium. Traditional Indian paintings depict gods and goddesses, mythological scenes, scenes pertaining to erstwhile royal houses and scenes from daily life.

Paintings created by artists belonging to different tribal societies are vibrant, symbolic and depict all aspects of tribal life. The introduction of Persian styled miniatures by the Mughals, lent a new dimension to the art of painting in India.
Not only were Mughal miniatures great masterpieces, they also influenced local miniature schools in Rajasthan, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Various miniature schools flourished in Rajasthan, during the Mughal era and continued even after it. Some of the important miniature schools of that period were: Mewar, Marwar, Kishangarh, Dhunbar and Hadoti school. Each school had its own distinct style, which distinguished it from the others. Court scenes, love scenes, hunting scenes, images of local deities and mythological episodes, dominate these paintings. Painted geometric designs and symbols had also been found on pottery items belonging to the Indus valley civilization. The high point of painting in the ancient period can be seen in the frescoes from Ajanta, which depicts the life and style of that period realistically.

Textiles

The first literary information about textiles in India can be found in the Rigveda, which refers to weaving. The ancient Indian epics-Ramayana and Mahabharat also speak of a variety of fabrics of those times. The Ramayana refers to the rich styles worn by the aristocracy on one hand and the simple clothes worn by the commoners and ascetics. India has a diverse and rich textile tradition. The origin of Indian textiles can be traced to the Indus valley civilization. The people of this civilization used homespun cotton for weaving their garments. Excavations at Harappa and Mohen -jo-Daro, have unearthed household items like needles made of bone and spindles made of wood, amply suggesting that homespun cotton was used to make garments. Fragments of woven cotton have also been found from these sites. India had numerous trade links with the outside world and Indian textiles were popular in the ancient world. Indian silk was popular in Rome in the early centuries of the Christian era. Hoards of fragments of cotton material originating from Gujarat have been found in the Egyptian tombs at Fostat, belonging to 5th century A.D. Cotton textiles were also exported to China during the heydays of the silk route. Ample evidence on the ancient textiles of India can also be obtained from the various sculptures belonging to Mauryan and Gupta age as well as from ancient Buddhist scripts and murals (Ajanta caves). Legend has it that when Amrapali, a courtesan from the kingdom of Vaishali met Gautam Buddha, she wore a richly woven semi transparent sari, which speaks volumes of the technical achievement of the ancient Indian weaver.

Carpet

India offers a wide range of floor coverings that have evolved over the centuries to suit a variety of tastes, climates and budgets. The woollen and silk carpets are more renowned compared to the other materials such as cotton and several vegetable fibres, which are used for making attractive and practically useful mats and durries. In the early stages, the motifs used in the Indian carpets were purely Persian. Later, various other designs were introduced from Afghanistan, Turkey, China, Morocco and France. Gradually, the pile carpet industry was Indianised and assumed a character of its own. Each region developed a distinct style of carpet weaving. In the mountainous regions of India, from Ladakh through Darjeeling in West Bengal and Sikkim to Manipur, carpets are made of pure wool in glowing colours. The predominant motifs are those of the dragon, snow-lion and lotus.

Patterns are also taken from Buddhist iconography with dhawaja (flag), the kalash (water-vessel) and the twin fish being favourites. Carpets from these regions are based on techniques that are as distinct as the motifs. These are essentially Central Asian in tradition. For over 2500 years the patterns reproduced were those of flowers arabesques and rhomboids with an occasional animal design. The patterns have never become outmoded. Some motifs have a profound meaning: the circle signifies eternity, the zigzag water and light, the swastika darkness and the tree happiness and goodness.

Stone Work

The stone-carving tradition in India is one of the richest in the world. Guilds of masons and stone carvers have existed here since the 7th century B.C. The skills were handed down as family lore from father to son, a practice prevalent in some parts of the country even today. The classical tradition of stone carving was closely linked with architecture. All major temples of India-be it Puri, Konark, Khajuraho, Kailash Temple, or the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram-illustrate the rich tradition of Indian stone carvings. The geologically old land of Rajasthan, rich in different kinds of hard rocks like granites, marbles, quartzite, slates, and other metamorphic rocks, has been a stone-carver's paradise. Right from the medieval times, the ready availability of high-quality stone (the use of brick was almost unknown) made it easy for the Rajasthani builder to construct strong and beautiful forts, palaces, and temples. The sculptures found in the ancient and medieval temples of Bharatpur, Baroli, Ramgarh, Nagda, Ajmer, Chittor, Mandore, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, and Udaipur speak highly of the artistic skills of the Rajasthani stonecutters. Apart from temple carvings, the stone carvers of Rajasthan are noted for their jali (latticework) carvings. Most ancient palatial buildings of Rajasthan sport jali work on their doors and windows. The jali screens, sculpted from both sandstone and marble, were frequently used in the windows of the zenanas (women's quarters) enabling the women in purdah to view the events of the courts without being seen. The screens also offered protection from the elements while allowing the passage of fresh air through the intricate geometric patterns. Rajasthan continues to be one of major centres of stone carving in the country. The capital city Jaipur is the centre of marble carving in Rajasthan. Here one can see artisans creating marble images of the deities as well as domestic utensils such as bowls for grinding spices and kneading dough. At Ajmer, Udaipur, Jodhpur and Bikaner, one comes across some very fine examples of the intricate jali work done on screens and panels of the royal palaces.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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